Physical and political geography of Europe
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On a physical map of the world, use cardinal directions, map scales, key/legend, and title to locate Europe. Locate important physical features (e.g., the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea; Lake Baikal, the Volga, Danube, Ural, Rhine, Elbe, Seine, Po, and Thames Rivers; the Alps, Pyrenees, and Balkan Mountains). Use other kinds of maps (e.g., landform, population, climate) to determine important characteristics of this region.
On a political map of the region, demonstrate map reading skills to distinguish countries, capitals, and other cities and to describe their absolute location (using latitude and longitude coordinates) and relative location (relationship to other countries, cities, or bodies of water); use knowledge of maps to complement information gained from text about a city, country or region.
Identify what time zones are, when and how the precise measurement of longitude was scientifically and historically determined, the function and location of the International Date Line, and the function of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, and give examples of differences in time in countries in different parts of the world.
Explain how absolute and relative locations, major physical characteristics, climate and natural resources in this region have influenced settlement patterns, population size, and economies of the countries.