Multiply a vector by a scalar.
Vector and Matrix Quantities
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Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component‐wise, e.g., as 𝑐(𝙫ₓ, 𝙫𝑦) = (𝑐𝙫ₓ, 𝑐𝙫𝑦).
Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple 𝑐𝙫 using ||𝑐𝙫|| = |𝑐|𝙫. Compute the direction of 𝑐𝙫 knowing that when |𝑐|𝙫 ≠ 0, the direction of 𝑐𝙫 is either along 𝙫 (for 𝑐 > 0) or against 𝙫 (for 𝑐 < 0).