Mathematically proficient students construct mathematical arguments (explain the reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture) using concrete, pictorial, or symbolic referents. Arguments may also rely on definitions, assumptions, previously established results, properties, or structures. Mathematically proficient students make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. Mathematically proficient students present their arguments in the form of representations, actions on those representations, and explanations in words (oral or written). Students critique others by affirming or questioning the reasoning of others. They can listen to or read the reasoning of others, decide whether it makes sense, ask questions to clarify or improve the reasoning, and validate or build on it. Mathematically proficient students can communicate their arguments, compare them to others, and reconsider their own arguments in response to the critiques of others.

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- Mathematically proficient students construct mathematical arguments (explain the reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture) using concrete, pictorial, or symbolic referents

# Mathematically proficient students construct mathematical arguments (explain the reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture) using concrete, pictorial, or symbolic referents

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### Related standards

- This standard is part of: 2.MP.3
- This standard is derived from: Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments

#### Similar standards in other grades

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships. They contextualize quantities, operations, and expressions by describing a corresponding situation. They decontextualize a situation by representing it symbolically. As they manipulate the symbols, they can pause as needed to access the meaning of the numbers, the units, and the operations that the symbols represent. Mathematically proficient students know and flexibly use different properties of operations, numbers, and geometric objects and when appropriate they interpret their solution in terms of the context.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships. They contextualize quantities, operations, and expressions by describing a corresponding situation. They decontextualize a situation by representing it symbolically. As they manipulate the symbols, they can pause as needed to access the meaning of the numbers, the units, and the operations that the symbols represent. Mathematically proficient students know and flexibly use different properties of operations, numbers, and geometric objects and when appropriate they interpret their solution in terms of the context.

#### Similar standards elsewhere

Use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results to construct arguments. Explain and justify the mathematical reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture by using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Listen to or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments, and build on those arguments.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and-if there is a flaw in an argument-explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and-if there is a flaw in an argument-explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.