Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships. They contextualize quantities, operations, and expressions by describing a corresponding situation. They decontextualize a situation by representing it symbolically. As they manipulate the symbols, they can pause as needed to access the meaning of the numbers, the units, and the operations that the symbols represent. Mathematically proficient students know and flexibly use different properties of operations, numbers, and geometric objects and when appropriate they interpret their solution in terms of the context.

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- Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships

# Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships

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### Related standards

- This standard is part of: 8.MP.2
- This standard is derived from: Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations

#### Similar standards in other grades

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students can contextualize and decontextualize problems involving quantitative relationships. They contextualize quantities, operations, and expressions by describing a corresponding situation. They decontextualize a situation by representing it symbolically. As they manipulate the symbols, they can pause as needed to access the meaning of the numbers, the units, and the operations that the symbols represent. Mathematically proficient students know and flexibly use different properties of operations, numbers, and geometric objects and when appropriate they interpret their solution in terms of the context.

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Mathematically proficient students construct mathematical arguments (explain the reasoning underlying a strategy, solution, or conjecture) using concrete, pictorial, or symbolic referents. Arguments may also rely on definitions, assumptions, previously established results, properties, or structures. Mathematically proficient students make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. Mathematically proficient students present their arguments in the form of representations, actions on those representations, and explanations in words (oral or written). Students critique others by affirming or questioning the reasoning of others. They can listen to or read the reasoning of others, decide whether it makes sense, ask questions to clarify or improve the reasoning, and validate or build on it. Mathematically proficient students can communicate their arguments, compare them to others, and reconsider their own arguments in response to the critiques of others.

#### Similar standards elsewhere

Students recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. They connect the quantity to written symbols. Quantitative reasoning means being able to explain through manipulatives or drawings what a problem means while attending to the meanings of the quantities. Students make meaning of a problem situation and translate into a number sentence.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

High school students seek to make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically, manipulate the representing symbols, and pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Students use quantitative reasoning to create coherent representations of the problem at hand; consider the units involved; attend to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and know and flexibly use different properties of operations and objects.

Explain the meaning of a problem, look for entry points to begin work on the problem, and plan and choose a solution pathway. When a solution pathway does not make sense, look for another pathway that does. Explain connections between various solution strategies and representations. Upon finding a solution, look back at the problem to determine whether the solution is reasonable and accurate, often checking answers to problems using a different method or approach.

Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize-to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents-and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.