The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.
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Base-pairing rules are used to explain the precise copying of DNA during semi-conservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.
Genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products.
DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules.
Exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.