Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome's transition from republic to empire.
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.
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Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV).
Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion.
Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese society and family life during his reign.
Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale).
Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.