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Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World: Modern civilization depends on major technological systems.
Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science: Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology. Science and engineering complement each other in the cycle known as research and development (R&D).
Evaluate the validity and reliability of multiple claims that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible. Communicate technical information or ideas (e.g., about phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically). (Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)
PS4:B Electromagnetic Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features. When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-ray s, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency.
Systems and System Models: Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.