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PS3:A Definitions of Energy: Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationships between the temperature and total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. (Planning and Carrying Out Investigations) (Entrepreneurial: Inquiry/Analysis)
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity: Proportional relationships (e.g., speed as the relation of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.
Connections to Nature of Science: Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence. Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.
Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon. (Engaging in Argument from Evidence) (Entrepreneurial: Critical thinking/Problem solving)