A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.
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The probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross can be predicted from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).
Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment are the basis of genetics.
The probable mode of inheritance can be predicted from a pedigree diagram showing phenotypes.
Data on frequency of recombination at meiosis can be used to estimate genetic distances between loci and to interpret genetic maps of chromosomes.