Explain Gregor Mendel’s identification of what we now call “genes,” how they are sorted in reproduction, and how this led to an understanding of the mechanism of heredity. Understand how the integration of his concept of heredity and the concept of natural selection has led to the modern model of speciation and evolution.
Investigate and describe how a biological classification system that implies degrees of kinship between organisms or species can be deduced from the similarity of their nucleotide (DNA) or amino acids (protein) sequences. Know that such systems often match the completely independent classification systems based on anatomical similarities.
Investigate and explain how molecular evidence reinforces and confirms the fossil, anatomical, behavioral, and embryological evidence for evolution, and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.