Students analyze the geographic, political, religious, social, and economic structures of the civilizations of medieval Europe.
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Explain the geography of Europe and the Eurasian landmass, including their location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate, and their relationship to ways of life in medieval Europe.
Describe the development of feudalism and manorialism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order and private property ownership.
Demonstrate understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, and Emperor Henry IV), the disputes over papal authority, and the Great Schism.
Explain the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., trial by jury, the common law, Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus, and an independent judiciary in England).
Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.