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Identify and explain prime and composite numbers.
Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers from 1 to 100, with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor.
Know commonly used fractions (halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, eighths, tenths) and their decimal and percent equivalents. Convert between any two representations (fractions, decimals, percents) of positive rational numbers without the use of a calculator.
Understand the concept of a unit rate and use terms related to rate in the context of a ratio relationship.
Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself (e.g., –(–3) = 3), and that 0 is its own opposite.