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Explain that atoms and molecules are in constant motion and that this motion increases as thermal energy increases.
Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat flow in macroscopic and microscopic terms.
Classify chemical reactions and phase changes as exothermic or endothermic based on enthalpy values. Use a graphical representation to illustrate the energy changes involved.
Perform calculations involving heat flow, temperature changes, and phase changes by using known values of specific heat, phase change constants, or both.