Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: Humanity faces major global challenges today, such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have manifestations in local communities.
Constructing explanations and designing solutions: Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering) in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
Pollution and the Environment: Pollution includes both natural and man-made substances which occur at rates or levels which incur harm (i.e., combustion of fossil fuels, agricultural waste, and industrial byproducts). Pollution can be categorized as point-source pollution and non-point source pollution.
Environmental Choices: Different approaches can be used to manage impacts to our environment. Generally speaking, we can change human activities to limit negative impacts. Alternately, we can use technologies that reduce impact or we can perform restoration work to recover natural functions and values.