Students identify interactions between objects either as being by direct contact (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism), and to use forces to describe interactions between objects. They recognize that non-zero net forces always cause changes in motion (Newton’s first law). These changes can be changes in speed, direction, or both. Students use Newton’s second law to summarize relationships among and solve problems involving net forces, masses, and changes in motion (using standard metric units). They explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on it (Newton’s third law).