Inheritance is the key process causing similarities between parental organisms and their offspring. Organisms that reproduce sexually transfer genetic information (DNA) to their offspring. This transfer of genetic information through inheritance leads to greater similarity among individuals within a population than between populations. Genetic changes can accumulate through natural selection or mutation that can lead to the evolution of species. Humans can manipulate genetic information using technology.
Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. The process of passing genetic information to offspring is inheritance. During sexual reproduction, genetic information is passed to offspring resulting in similarities and differences between parental organisms and their offspring. There are advantages and disadvantages of the two types of reproduction.
Genes are located on the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variations of each distinct gene. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of a specific protein, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) in genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.