Heating increases the energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.
All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.