Industrial growth and expansion
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Transportation, inventions, communication, and technology (e.g., 1800s—Erie Canal, railroads, steamboats, turnpikes, telegraph, cable; 1900s—auto- mobiles, subways, air travel, seaways, telephones, radios and televisions, computer)
Immigration and migration (e.g., Ellis Island; the mass starvation in Ireland, 1845-50; forced relocation of Native American Indians in New York State)
The important contributions of immigrants to New York State
Geographic influences of industrialization and expansion (e.g., natural resources, location); the interactions between economic and geographic factors