Equations and inequalities.
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Some equations have no solutions in a given number system, but have a solution in a larger system. For example, the solution of 𝘹 + 1 = 0 is an integer, not a whole number; the solution of 2𝘹 + 1 = 0 is a rational number, not an integer; the solutions of 𝘹² – 2 = 0 are real numbers, not rational numbers; and the solutions of 𝘹² + 2 = 0 are complex numbers, not real numbers.
An equation can often be solved by successively deducing from it one or more simpler equations. For example, one can add the same constant to both sides without changing the solutions, but squaring both sides might lead to extraneous solutions. Strategic competence in solving includes looking ahead for productive manipulations and anticipating the nature and number of solutions.
An equation is a statement of equality between two expressions, often viewed as a question asking for which values of the variables the expressions on either side are in fact equal. These values are the solutions to the equation. An identity, in contrast, is true for all values of the variables; identities are often developed by rewriting an expression in an equivalent form.
The same solution techniques used to solve equations can be used to rearrange formulas. For example, the formula for the area of a trapezoid, 𝘈 = ((𝘣₁+𝘣₂)/2)𝘩, can be solved for 𝘩 using the same deductive process.
The solutions of an equation in one variable form a set of numbers; the solutions of an equation in two variables form a set of ordered pairs of numbers, which can be plotted in the coordinate plane. Two or more equations and/or inequalities form a system. A solution for such a system must satisfy every equation and inequality in the system.