Atomic models are constructed to explain experimental evidence and make predictions. The changes in the atomic model over time exemplify how scientific knowledge changes as new evidence emerges and how technological advancements like electricity extend the boundaries of scientific knowledge. Thompson’s study of electrical discharges in cathode-ray tubes led to the discovery of the electron and the development of the plum pudding model of the atom. Rutherford’s experiment, in which he bombarded gold foil with λ -particles, led to the discovery that most of the atom consists of empty space with a relatively small, positively charged nucleus. Bohr used data from atomic spectra to propose a planetary model of the atom in which electrons orbit the nucleus, like planets around the sun. Later, Schrödinger used the idea that electrons travel in waves to develop a model in which electrons travel randomly in regions of space called orbitals (quantum mechanical model).