An object moves at constant speed in a circular path when there is a constant net force that is always directed at right angles to the direction in motion toward the center of the circle. In this case, the net force causes an acceleration that shows up as a change in direction. If the force is removed, the object will continue in a straight-line path. The nearly circular orbits of planets and satellites result from the force of gravity. Centripetal acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and can be calculated by the equation ac = v²/r, where v is the speed of the object and r is the radius of the circle. This expression for acceleration can be substituted into Newton’s second law to calculate the centripetal force. Since the centripetal force is a net force, it can be equated to friction (unbanked curves), gravity, elastic force, etc., to perform more complex calculations.