## Finer grained standards that are part of this one

Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network.

Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled.

Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions.

Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.

Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.

Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors.

Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.