Standards with the same topic and subject but for other grades
recognize that the number of electrons in the outermost energy level determines an element’s chemical properties or chemical reactivity.
given a chemical formula of a compound, identify the elements and the number of atoms of each that comprise the compound.
Another type of change occurs in nuclear reactions. Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. This energy can be released by joining nuclei together (fusion) or by splitting nuclei (fission), resulting in the conversion of minute amounts of matter into energy. In nuclear reactions, a small amount of matter produces a large amount of energy. However, there are potential negative effects of using nuclear energy, including radioactive nuclear waste storage and disposal.
Scientists use models to help explain the structure of the atom. Their understanding of the structure of the atom continues to evolve. Two models commonly used are the Bohr and the "electron cloud" (Quantum Mechanics) models. The Bohr model does not depict the three-dimensional aspect of an atom, and it implies that electrons are in static orbits. The "electron cloud" model better represents our current understanding of the structure of the atom.
identify the reactants and products in a given chemical equation formula.
describe, in simple terms, the processes that release nuclear energy (i.e., nuclear fission and nuclear fusion). Create a simple diagram to summarize and compare and contrast these two types of nuclear energy.
construct and use models and simulations to represent and/or explain the atom and phases of matter; evaluate the limitations of models used, when appropriate (PS.2 c)
Atomic mass is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom of an element (PS.4 a).
Although an element’s atoms all have the same number of protons, they can have different numbers of neutrons (PS.4 a).
evaluate the positive and negative effects of using nuclear energy.