Standards with the same topic and subject but for other grades
A certain amount of practice is necessary to develop fluency with computational strategies; however, the practice must be motivating and systematic if students are to develop fluency in computation, whether mental, with manipulative materials, or with paper and pencil.
Dot patterns should be presented in both regular and irregular arrangements. This will help students to understand that numbers are made up of parts, and will later assist them in combining parts as well as counting on. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
Concrete models should be used initially to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction facts.
Composing and decomposing numbers flexibly forms a basis for understanding properties of the operations and later formal algebraic concepts and procedures.
In grade three, students developed an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and practical problems involving equal-sized groups, arrays, and length models. In addition, grade three students have worked on fluency of facts for 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10.
The development of computational fluency relies on quick access to number facts. There are patterns and relationships that exist in the facts. These relationships can be used to learn and retain the facts.
Multiplication can also refer to a multiplicative comparison, such as: “Gwen has six times as many stickers as Phillip”. Both situations should be modeled with manipulatives.
Models of multiplication may include repeated addition and collections of like sets, partial products, and area or array models.
Addition is the combining of quantities; it uses the following terms: addend --> 45,623 + addend --> 37,846 = sum --> 83,469
Division is the inverse of multiplication. Terms used in division are dividend, divisor, and quotient. dividend ÷ divisor = quotient, [graphic cannot be reproduced], dividend/divisor = quotient