## Standards with the same topic and subject but for other grades

Apply strategies, including place value and the properties of multiplication and/or addition when multiplying and dividing whole numbers. (a, b, c, d)

Create practical problems to represent a multiplication or division fact. (b)

As students work to solve multiplication and division problems, they naturally tend to utilize strategies that involve place value understanding and properties of the operations. Applying the commutative property of multiplication (e.g., 5 x 8 = 8 x 5) reduces in half the number of multiplication facts that students must learn. The distributive property of multiplication allows students to find the answer to a problem such as 6 x 7 by decomposing 7 into 3 and 4 (e.g., 6 x 7= 6 x (3 + 4)) allowing them to think about (6 x 3) + (6 x 4) = 18 + 24 = 42.

The student will a) represent multiplication and division through 10 × 10, using a variety of approaches and models; b) create and solve single-step practical problems that involve multiplication and division through 10 × 10; c) demonstrate fluency with multiplication facts of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10; and d) solve single-step practical problems involving multiplication of whole numbers, where one factor is 99 or less and the second factor is 5 or less.

represent multiplication and division through 10 × 10, using a variety of approaches and models;

demonstrate fluency with multiplication facts of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10; and

solve single-step practical problems involving multiplication of whole numbers, where one factor is 99 or less and the second factor is 5 or less.

Strategies that allow students to derive unknown facts from facts they do know include: doubles (2s facts), doubling twice (4s facts), five facts (half of ten), decomposing into known facts (e.g., 7 x 8 can be thought of as (5 x 8) + (2 x 8)).