Finer grained standards that are part of this one
Atoms and molecules are in constant motion.
The phase of a substance depends on temperature and pressure.
Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy in a sample. There is a direct relationship between temperature and average kinetic energy.
The kinetic molecular theory is a model for predicting and explaining gas behavior.
Gases have mass and occupy space. Gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion and exert pressure as they collide with the walls of their containers. Gas molecules with the lightest mass travel fastest. Relatively large distances separate gas particles from each other.
Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles. Pressure units include atm, kPa, and mm Hg.
An ideal gas does not exist, but this concept is used to model gas behavior. A real gas exists, has intermolecular forces and particle volume, and can change states. The Ideal Gas Law states that PV = nRT.
The pressure and volume of a sample of a gas at constant temperature are inversely proportional to each other (Boyle’s Law: P1V1 = P2V2).
At constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (Charles’ Law: V1/T1 = V2/T2).
The Combined Gas Law (P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2) relates pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas.