Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms).
Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.
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Describe how scientists use models to explore relationships in natural systems (e.g., an ecosystem, river system, the solar system).
Given a model showing simple cause-and-effect relationships in a natural system, predict results that can be used to test the assumptions in the model (e.g., photosynthesis, water cycle, diffusion, infiltration).
Describe how scientists use models to explore relationships and make predictions about natural systems (e.g., weather conditions, the solar system).
Interpret data/observations; develop relationships among variables based on data/observations to design models as solutions.
Describe how engineers use models to develop new and improved technologies to solve problems.