Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many processes energy is transferred to the environment as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:
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Students know heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems.
Students know that the work done by a heat engine that is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out at a lower temperature (first law of thermodynamics) and that this is an example of the law of conservation of energy.
Students know the internal energy of an object includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules, often referred to as thermal energy. The greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.
Students know that most processes tend to decrease the order of a system over time and that energy levels are eventually distributed uniformly.
Students know that entropy is a quantity that measures the order or disorder of a system and that this quantity is larger for a more disordered system.