Analyze data on the variation of traits among individual organisms within a population to explain patterns in the data in the context of transmission of genetic information.
- Heredity – Inheritance and Variation of Traits
The student will demonstrate an understanding of the specific mechanisms by which characteristics or traits are transferred from one generation to the next via genes.
Sex cells are formed by a process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved after replication. With the exception of sex chromosomes, for each chromosome in the body cells of a multicellular organism, there is a second similar, but not identical, chromosome. Although these pairs of similar chromosomes can carry the same genes, they may have slightly different alleles. During meiosis the pairs of similar chromosomes may cross and trade pieces. One chromosome from each pair is randomly passed on to form sex cells resulting in a multitude of possible genetic combinations. The cell produced during fertilization has one set of chromosomes from each parent.