Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).
- Earth’s Geosphere
The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
Evidence indicates Earth’s interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history.