The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields.
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Develop and use models (such as computer simulations, demonstrations, diagrams, and drawings) to explain how neutral objects can become charged and how objects mutually repel or attract each other and include the concept of conservation of charge in the explanation.
Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the relationships among the charges of two particles, the attractive or repulsive electrical force between them, and the distance between them (Coulomb’s Law. F=kq₁q₂/r²).
Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.
Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.
Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.