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Construct an argument based on qualitative and quantitative evidence that relates the change in temperature of a substance to its mass and heat energy added or removed from a system.
Define power and solve problems involving the rate of energy production or consumption (P = ΔE/Δt). Explain and predict changes in power consumption based on changes in energy demand or elapsed time. Investigate power consumption and power production systems in common use.
Investigate and evaluate the laws of thermodynamics and use them to describe internal energy, heat, and work.
Communicate scientific ideas to describe how forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space. Explain how energy is contained within the field and how the energy changes when the objects generating and interacting with the field change their relative positions.
Describe, compare, and diagrammatically represent both electric and magnetic fields. Qualitatively predict the motion of a charged particle in each type of field, but avoid situations where the two types of fields are combined in the same region of space. Restrict magnetic fields to those that are parallel or perpendicular to the path of a charged particle.