Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).
Understand that two events 𝘈 and 𝘉 are independent if the probability of 𝘈 and 𝘉 occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.
Understand the conditional probability of 𝘈 given 𝘉 as 𝘗(𝘈 and 𝘉)/𝘗(𝘉), and interpret independence of 𝘈 and 𝘉 as saying that the conditional probability of 𝘈 given 𝘉 is the same as the probability of 𝘈, and the conditional probability of 𝘉 given 𝘈 is the same as the probability of 𝘉.
Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.