Matter and Energy Interact in the Physical World
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Obtain and evaluate information to describe how synthetic materials come from natural resources, what their functions are, and how society uses these new materials. Examples of synthetic materials could include medicine, foods, building materials, plastics, or alternative fuels.
Design, construct, and test a device that can affect the rate of a phase change. Compare and identify the best characteristics of competing devices and modify them based on data analysis to improve the device to better meet the criteria for success.
Develop a model that uses computational thinking to illustrate cause and effect relationships in particle motion, temperature, density, and state of a pure substance when heat energy is added or removed. Emphasize molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show how adding or removing heat energy can result in phase changes, and focus on calculating the density of a substance’s state.
Develop a model to describe the scale and proportion of atoms and molecules. Emphasize developing atomic models of elements and their numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons, as well as models of simple molecules. Topics like valence electrons, bond energy, ionic complexes, ions, and isotopes will be introduced at the high school level.
Obtain information about various properties of matter, evaluate how different materials’ properties allow them to be used for particular functions in society, and communicate your findings. Emphasize general properties of matter. Examples could include color, density, flammability, hardness, malleability, odor, ability to rust, solubility, state, or the ability to react with water.