Evaluate reports based on data.
Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions
Draw and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. In earlier grades, students are introduced to different ways of collecting data and use graphical displays and summary statistics to make comparisons. These ideas are revisited with a focus on how the way in which data is collected determines the scope and nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from that data. The concept of statistical significance is developed informally through simulation as meaning a result that is unlikely to have occurred solely as a result of random selection in sampling or random assignment in an experiment. For S.IC.4, focus on the variability of results from experiments—that is, focus on statistics as a way of dealing with, not eliminating, inherent randomness.