Writing a plan related to the question and prediction that includes:
Students design investigations that control variables, generate adequate data/observations to provide reasonable explanations, and can be reproduced by other scientists. At early stages, experimental design reflects what the experimenter will do to answer a question and ensure that a test is fair. At later stages, students design investigations that will produce the appropriate kinds of evidence to support or refute an hypothesis. Multiple trials or the collection of multiple data points are incorporated into the design and variables are controlled to ensure that the investigation is valid and reproducible.
Students demonstrate their understanding of experimental design by