Computational fluency is the ability to think flexibly in order to choose appropriate strategies to solve problems accurately and efficiently.
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The equal-sets or equal-groups model lends itself to sorting a variety of concrete objects into equal groups and reinforces the concept of multiplication as a way to find the total number of items in a collection of groups, with the same amount in each group, and the total number of items can be found by repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The number line model can be used to solve a multiplication problem such as 3 x 6. This is represented on the number line by three jumps of six or six jumps of three, depending on the context of the problem. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
Dot patterns should be presented in both regular and irregular arrangements. This will help students to understand that numbers are made up of parts, and will later assist them in combining parts as well as counting on. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
Single-step refers to the least number of steps necessary to solve a problem.
The array model, consisting of rows and columns (e.g., three rows of four columns for a 3-by-4 array), helps build an understanding of the commutative property. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]