Addition and subtraction should be taught concurrently in order to develop understanding of the inverse relationship.
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The array model, consisting of rows and columns (e.g., three rows of four columns for a 3-by-4 array), helps build an understanding of the commutative property. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The development of computational fluency relies on quick access to number facts. There are patterns and relationships that exist in the facts. These relationships can be used to learn and retain the facts.
The equal-sets or equal-groups model lends itself to sorting a variety of concrete objects into equal groups and reinforces the concept of multiplication as a way to find the total number of items in a collection of groups, with the same amount in each group, and the total number of items can be found by repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The length model (e.g., a number line) also reinforces repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
Investigate and describe part-whole relationships for numbers up to 10 using a variety of configurations. (b)