Concrete models should be used initially to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction facts.
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The number line model can be used to solve a multiplication problem such as 3 x 6. This is represented on the number line by three jumps of six or six jumps of three, depending on the context of the problem. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The length model (e.g., a number line) also reinforces repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The array model, consisting of rows and columns (e.g., three rows of four columns for a 3-by-4 array), helps build an understanding of the commutative property. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The equal-sets or equal-groups model lends itself to sorting a variety of concrete objects into equal groups and reinforces the concept of multiplication as a way to find the total number of items in a collection of groups, with the same amount in each group, and the total number of items can be found by repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
The terms associated with multiplication are listed: factor --> 54 x factor --> 3 = product --> 162.