The equal-sets or equal-groups model lends itself to sorting a variety of concrete objects into equal groups and reinforces the concept of multiplication as a way to find the total number of items in a collection of groups, with the same amount in each group, and the total number of items can be found by repeated addition or skip counting. [Graphic cannot be reproduced.]
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A certain amount of practice is necessary to develop fluency with computational strategies; however, the practice must be motivating and systematic if students are to develop fluency in computation, whether mental, with manipulative materials, or with paper and pencil.
The development of computational fluency relies on quick access to number facts. There are patterns and relationships that exist in the facts. These relationships can be used to learn and retain the facts.
Computational fluency is the ability to think flexibly in order to choose appropriate strategies to solve problems accurately and efficiently.
Composing and decomposing numbers flexibly forms a basis for understanding properties of the operations and later formal algebraic concepts and procedures.
Investigate and describe part-whole relationships for numbers up to 10 using a variety of configurations. (b)