Chemical bonds are the forces that hold atoms together to form new substances. These bonds are formed with electrons (6.5 d).
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The atom consists of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons) that differ in location, charge, and relative mass (PS.2 a).
The electron cloud model best represents our current understanding of the atomic structure. The electron cloud model describes the atom as containing a dense nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by regions of space (clouds) where electrons are most likely to be found (PS.2 a). (Note: the Bohr model is an inaccurate model and does not depict the 3-D nature of the atom; it implies that electrons are in static orbits.)
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. The properties of an atom are based on the number and arrangement of its parts (PS.2 a).
A series of contributions and discoveries has led to the development of the atomic theory. The atomic theory encapsulates our current understanding of the atom and its structure. The development of this theory illustrates the nature of science (PS.2 a).
Atoms of an element with differing numbers of neutrons are known as isotopes, which leads to a different atomic mass; however, the chemical properties of the isotopes are the same. The atomic mass presented in the periodic table represents a population-weighted average of naturally occurring isotopes (PS.4 a).