Predict the outcome of specific genetic crosses involving two characteristics.
Structures and Functions of Living Organisms
In prior grades students learned that all living systems are composed of cells which make up tissues, organs, and organ systems. In grades 9-11 students learn that cells have complex molecules and structures that enable them to carry out life functions such as photosynthesis and respiration and pass on their characteristics to future generations. Information for producing proteins and reproduction is coded in DNA and organized into genes in chromosomes. This elegant yet complex set of processes explains how life forms replicate themselves with slight changes that make adaptations to changing conditions possible over long periods of time. These processes that occur within living cells help students understand the commonalities among the diverse living forms that populate Earth today.
Egg and sperm cells are formed by a process called meiosis in which each resulting cell contains only one representative chromosome from each pair found in the original cell. Recombination of genetic information during meiosis scrambles the genetic information, allowing for new genetic combinations and characteristics in the offspring. Fertilization restores the original number of chromosome pairs and reshuffles the genetic information, allowing for variation among offspring.