When elements are listed in order according to the number of protons, repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements with similar properties. This Periodic Table is a consequence of the repeating pattern of outermost electrons.
Matter: Properties and Change
In prior years, students learned the basic concepts behind the atomic nature of matter. In grades 9-11 students learn about chemical reactions, starting with the structure of an atom. They learn that the Periodic Table groups elements with similar physical and chemical properties. With grounding in atomic structure, students learn about the formation of molecules and ions, compounds and solutions, and the details of a few common chemical reactions. They also learn about nuclear reactions and the distinction between fusion and fission. These concepts about the fundamental properties of matter will help students understand chemical and nuclear reactions that are important in modern society and lay the groundwork for both chemistry and life science.