Demonstrate how carbon atoms form four covalent bonds to make large molecules. Identify the functions of these molecules (e.g., plant and animal tissue, polymers, sources of food and nutrition, fossil fuels).
Matter: Properties and Change
In prior years, students learned the basic concepts behind the atomic nature of matter. In grades 9-11 students learn about chemical reactions, starting with the structure of an atom. They learn that the Periodic Table groups elements with similar physical and chemical properties. With grounding in atomic structure, students learn about the formation of molecules and ions, compounds and solutions, and the details of a few common chemical reactions. They also learn about nuclear reactions and the distinction between fusion and fission. These concepts about the fundamental properties of matter will help students understand chemical and nuclear reactions that are important in modern society and lay the groundwork for both chemistry and life science.
All forms of life are composed of large molecules that contain carbon. Carbon atoms bond to one another and other elements by sharing electrons, forming covalent bonds. Stable molecules of carbon have four covalent bonds per carbon atom.