Use common terms so that all observers can agree on the position of an object in relation to another object (e.g., describe whether the teacher’s desk is in front of the room, at the side, or in the back; say whether the top of the school’s flagpole is higher or lower than the roof).
Force and Motion
Students learn how to describe the position and motion of objects and the effects of forces on objects. Students start by describing the position of one object with respect to another object (e.g., in front, behind, above, and below) and then describe motion as a change in position. Forces are introduced as pushes and pulls that can change the motion of objects, and students learn through observation that various forces act through contact while others act from a distance (without touching the object). These basic concepts about forces and motion provide a foundation for learning to quantify motion in later years.
The position of an object can be described by locating it relative to another object or to the object’s surroundings.