Learn how to read, understand, and cite evidence


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Gabrielle Fugle
June 12, 2018
Lesson Plan
Goal: Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Think Alouds:
With this strategy, teachers verbalize their thinking while reading a selection
orally. Their verbalized thinking includes describing things they are doing as
they read to monitor their comprehension. The purpose of the think aloud
strategy is to model for students how skilled readers read and cite evidence. (Davey, 1983)
Four Questions:
Teachers can use a simple process to guide students in analyzing the
effectiveness of their inferences. It involves posing four questions.
Question 1: What is my inference?
There are 2 types of inferences that can be made.
• Default inferences, which are automatic assumptions and
• Reasoned inferences, which is a conclusion that we make about a topic
on the basis of available information.
Question 2: What information did I use to make this inference?
Question 3: How good was my thinking?
Question 4: Do I need to change my thinking? (Adapted from Marzano, 2010)
“It Says, I Say, And So”:
This strategy uses a graphic organizer that allows students to visualize the
steps in making an inference. (Beers, 2003)
The plan
1. First, the students identify what the reading says.
2. Next, find information from the text to help answer the question.
3. Then, add in their thoughts about what the reading says.
4. Finally, the students combine what the reading says and their thoughts
to answer the question and thus create new meaning—the inference.
Think Aloud Summaries:
Have students form small groups where they take turns verbally explaining
what and why events in the text occurred. This allows for students to hear
additional ways students think about text besides the teacher. Attention is
continually drawn back to specific language used within the text. Students
could write a summary outlining a specific event or section of text with
evidence included to support the claim.
Student Conference Help:
As students are completing the graphic organizer “It Says, I Say, and So”, stop
and check with them after each step. If students cannot find the information
from the text to answer the question, they will not be able to continue the
process correctly. 


Chart 1

Evaluate success:
The students will turn in their worksheet when completed. The instructor will evaluate if each student was able to accurately interpret and find evidence to support their ideas of the reading. If a student fails to pull evidence from the reading, fails to create their own idea to answer the question, or fails to blend the evidence and ideas together the student has not understood the task.


Student Name:
Answering the question /5
Pulling evidence /5
Creating original thought /5
Combining the two /5
Total /20





Graphic Organizer
Lesson Plan